This is a sub-field of machine learning that's shown a lot of promise in recent years. It's concerned with algorithms that are based on the structure and function of neurons in the brain.
Machine learning vs Deep learning
One of the most exciting features of deep learning is its performance in feature learning; the algorithms perform particularly well in being able to detect features from raw data. A good example is a deep learning model's ability to do things like identify the wheels from the image of a car. This diagram illustrates the difference between typical machine learning and deep learning.
Deep learning usually consists of multiple layers. They typically combine simpler models to build more complicated ones by passing along data from one layer to another; which is one of the primary reasons deep learning outperforms other learning algorithms as the amount of data increases.
The Rise of Artificial Intelligence through Deep Learning – Yoshua Bengio